After talks with US Defense Secretary Jim Mattis, Nirmala Sitharaman said India was prepared to increase training for Afghan personnel and develop infrastructure such as schools and hospitals.
"India's contribution has been on these counts and we shall expand if necessary," she told a news conference with Mattis.
"However as we have made it very clear, there should not be boots from India on the ground."
It has also trained more than 4,000 Afghan National Army officers and provided helicopters to the Afghan Air Force.
Unveiling his Afghanistan policy last month, Trump angered Pakistan by saying it offered safe haven to "agents of chaos".
"There can be no tolerance of terrorist safe havens," Mattis said Tuesday.
"As global leaders, India and the United States resolve to work together to eradicate this scourge."